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dc.contributor Long-Nicholson, Cindy en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Smith, Maureen Margaret, 1967- en_US
dc.contributor.author Mohr, Rhonda M.
dc.date.accessioned 2011-05-04T22:34:29Z
dc.date.available 2011-05-04T22:34:29Z
dc.date.issued 2011-05-04
dc.date.submitted 2011-05-02
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10211.9/1095
dc.description Thesis (M.S., Kinesiology (Movement Studies)) -- California State University, Sacramento, 2011. en_US
dc.description.abstract Physical educators and coaches of all sports have long been breaking down motor skills while teaching in order to maximize learning. Part of that process involves the use of attentional cues, giving students and athletes cues on which to focus. Studies show that for the learning of complex skills internal focus cues, often used for teaching golf, may not be the most effective in terms of performance and retention. When learning complex skills, external focus of attention is the preferred method (Bell & Hardy, 2009; Wulf , 2008; Wulf, Lauterback, & Toole, 1999; Wulf , Shea, & Park, 2001; Zentgraf & Munzert, 2009). It appears that having an external focus would lead to better performance and acquisition (Bell & Hardy, 2009). This study compared the retention from learning to hit a golf ball by internal focus cues, external focus cues, and no attentional focus cues. The purpose was to determine if giving external focus cues during the acquisition stage of learning a golf motor skill would produce a better performance and retention of that skill. Twenty high school physical education students (males = 9, females = 11) with no or little prior experience playing golf participated in three skill lessons and a retention test after 60 days. The skills test task was to hit a golf ball as close to a target as possible using a nine iron. Instruction was given using different attentional focus cues according to their assigned group. The average age of the participant was 15.81. Participants were randomly placed in one of three groups, external focus of attention, internal focus of attention or the control group. Participants were given a skills test prior to receiving three lessons. After each lesson a skills test was administered. After 30 and 60 days from the last lesson another skills test was performed to measure retention. There was no significant difference in the novice golfers’ performance or retention of the golf skills based on any focus of attention instructions. These findings were discussed in relation to motor learning and practical issues of golf instruction and physical education classes. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Kinesiology (Movement Studies) en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.subject Attentional focus en_US
dc.subject Golf swing performance en_US
dc.title The effect of external focus cue instruction on retention of golf swing performance en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


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